Raising a child according to the Maria Montessori system


Parents want to raise their children to be independent, inquisitive and successful in all matters. To achieve this goal, mothers and fathers choose the approach to the development of the baby that they consider most acceptable for the family and effective. Progressive approaches are of great interest, one of which is the pedagogical system of Maria Montessori.


     Maria Montessori and the development of a popular pedagogical system
     Principles of education according to the Maria Montessori system
     Children's Montessori garden
     Montessori school
     Montessori education at home

Maria Montessori and the development of a popular pedagogical system

Italian teacher Maria Montessori (Italian: Maria Tecla Artemisia Montessori) devoted her professional activities to the development of children. She became one of the first women to create her own pedagogical system.

First, Maria Montessori developed methods of developmental activities for children with developmental delays. When the classes brought the desired result, the teacher adapted her system for all children. Therefore, today every family can turn to the Montessori method and, if desired, follow it from a very early age of the child in order to cultivate important qualities in him.

In 1929, Maria Montessori opened the International Montessori Association, or Association Montessori Internationale - AMI. Ten years later, she created a center for training Montessori teachers.
Principles of education according to the Maria Montessori system

Observation. To determine the developmental needs of a particular child at a particular point in time, he needs to be monitored regularly and efficiently. That is, to notice all his interests and then respond to them accurately. Why do mountains of toys lie in the corner and are of no interest to the baby? Because he doesn’t need them now, he wants and strives to develop something else. The activities that you select based on your observations will be very interesting and most useful for your child.

Developmental environment. The basis of Montessori development is a prepared developmental space in which a child is able to satisfy his or her developmental needs. Such a space is organized according to the principle of zoning: a self-care zone, a creativity zone, a games zone, a movement zone, etc. Each zone is adapted for the child and helps him cope with various tasks independently.

Human tendencies. Every person from birth has an interest in culture and a natural desire for development. Every child strives to understand the world around him and adapt to it, because this is his natural need. Parents, in turn, should only support the little researcher and offer him suitable conditions for his first discoveries.

Sensitive periods of development. At each age stage, the child’s sensitivity to the formation of any skills changes. Periods of special sensitivity to the development of speech, sensory skills, fine motor skills, movement, etc.
are called sensitive. In each period, one of the developmental needs increases, which must be answered in the form of suitable activities.

Independence. The key principle of the Montessori method is “Help me do it myself.” It implies that the adult supports the child’s desire and attempts to dress independently, have a snack, participate in cleaning, preparing lunch, etc.

“Never help a child with a task that he feels he can succeed at.”
Children's Montessori garden

A Montessori kindergarten is very different from a traditional kindergarten; it has its own characteristics of the development of preschool children. Here the environment is prepared in such a way that children have freedom of choice and the opportunity to take care of themselves from an early age.

Meal times, walking times and sleep times were recorded. Wherein:

     1.5 hours are given for meals, so that each child eats when he is really hungry;
     while walking and staying awake in the classroom, each child can independently choose an activity to their liking, but there are no general classes;
     It is not necessary to sleep during sleep, but you cannot leave the room so as not to disturb other children.

Montessori kindergarten

The teacher here plays the role of observer and assistant. He can show the child how to use Montessori materials, show him other activities in an area that is interesting for the child, but he will not do anything for the child. That is, a teacher in a Montessori class helps children do everything on their own and does not give any grades.

The groups in this kindergarten are of different ages: 1-3 years and 3-6 years. Therefore, in the same group there are children who are at different stages of development. Thanks to this, younger children learn faster and become independent by watching their older ones. And preschoolers try themselves as mentors for kids and show leadership qualities when taking care of younger children.
Montessori school

From the age of 6, a child especially develops abstract thinking, so it is important to learn new things not only through words, but also through sensations. This becomes real in a Montessori classroom setting.


     Here the teacher is not a lecturer, but an adviser. He suggests which activities will help the child reach his potential and respond to current cognitive interests.
     There is no curriculum, children have freedom of choice. But freedom is limited by special materials, each of which helps in the study of one of the compulsory school subjects.
     Instead of textbooks and workbooks, there are special Montessori materials. Working with them, the child explores various topics: from grammar to division, from basic human needs to the role of water in soil erosion. The child is a researcher who makes discoveries and comes to important conclusions himself, and does not just memorize the words that the teacher says.
     A Montessori school does not have a set schedule with many subjects. There are two three-hour periods here. Since at this time the child is passionate about an activity that interests him, he does not need rest every 40 minutes. On the contrary, it is more useful not to distract him from the study.
     As in a Montessori garden, children of different ages continue to learn together and develop each other.

Montessori education at home

Prepared home environment

Everything that surrounds a child at home every day can have a positive impact on his development. You just need to transform the environment to suit the needs and capabilities of the baby. That is, to create a developing space.

Developmental environment at home

Properly organized space at home helps maintain the baby's interest in household chores and allows him to show independence.

What can you change in your usual home environment to increase space for development:

A home environment that encourages children to be independent. In the hallway, place a children's high chair and a separate shelf for shoes. Attach hooks for outerwear that will be accessible to the child. This way, the baby will be able to start dressing independently for a walk and undressing after it. A mirror that matches the child’s height would be a good addition.

In the kitchen, leave a separate jug for your child, from which he can pour himself water. Keep the mug and other children's utensils in a place accessible to him. Now the baby will be able to quench his thirst himself or set the table for himself before dinner.

Access to cleaning supplies. Give your child a brush for sweeping the table, a dustpan and broom for cleaning up trash from the floor, a small bucket and a rag for collecting spills and wiping off dust. The little helper will be glad that you trust him to take care of himself and will begin to master useful equipment.

Neatness, simplicity and aesthetics. If a child is surrounded by objects made from natural materials in pastel colors, it will be easier for him to concentrate on what is most important. Therefore, remove bright plastic toys from your baby’s sight. Choose a plain wooden children's table and a chair for your studies. Place educational materials and games neatly and easily on trays and baskets on open shelving.

Safety and freedom of movement. The space should be organized so that a child of any age can walk, run and climb everywhere without harm to his health. Such an environment will reduce the number of prohibitions that you are forced to set for your baby for his own safety.

When your child begins to crawl, get down to his level and assess the house for potential hazards in his access. In particular, check for open sockets and wires, long curtains and tablecloths, sharp objects, household chemicals and medications. It is better to make the sockets closed, securely hide or remove the wires, change the curtains to shorter ones, and move all chemicals to the upper shelves.

Each child has his own unique developmental space in the home that meets his needs, interests and preferences. This is how it should be, so in this matter, also follow the baby and change the environment as the child grows up.

Participation in household chores

When we allow a child to join us while cleaning, preparing dinner, doing laundry or ironing, we include him in the life of the family from an early age. This is of great value for the baby for two reasons:

     A child can imitate his parents, gets closer to them, and enters into the cultural context that surrounds him.
     The child satisfies several developmental needs at once during one of the household chores.

UPZh Washing with board

For example, doing laundry with a board is an excellent opportunity for a preschooler to explore the properties of water and satisfy his need to interact with it. Filling and emptying bowls will require gross motor skills. To straighten the soapy fabric, hold it, rinse and wring out - fine. To reproduce the sequence of actions, concentration and will are required. This is a task that develops the child’s thinking.

Of course, a washing machine can easily handle all these tasks, as is customary in a modern family. Mechanized methods do not give the feeling of connection with the result that manual labor gives. The feeling that I can be

I am successful, able to solve problems, overcome difficulties, generate solutions, paradoxically, I am replenished more from very simple and tangible things, and less from large-scale and speculative ones. Sometimes manual labor can be useful for parents too.

Therefore, it is important to create conditions at home for development through the so-called PLC - practical life exercises. Even in the age of automation, you can offer a preschool child to cope with any task without a washing machine or dishwasher, without a food processor, without a robot vacuum cleaner, etc. This activity will be interesting and useful for the baby.

To follow the Montessori method of development and education, parents do not have to send their preschool-age child to a special kindergarten and then look for a Montessori school. In addition, not all Russian cities have suitable institutions. You can support a nurturing environment at home from an early age, give your child space for independence and be a competent and supportive adult for him. This will be a good foundation for the harmonious and comprehensive development of your child according to the Montessori method.


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